Monday, January 7, 2008

AHMED I (Achmed I)

Sultan Ahmed I was born on 18th April 1590 in Manisa. His father was Sultan Mehmet III, his mother was Handan Sultana. He was very well educated, he had spoken Arabic and Persian fluently. He was a very brilliant rider, and a fencer. He was a successful soldier and he was very fond of archery and hunting. He had dressed up so modest. He came to throne after his father�s death on 21st December 1603. Sultan Ahmed I was the first sovereign who organised the administrative regulations since Suleyman the Magnificent. He was a political genius, although he ascended throne very young he administrated the empire very successfully.

In Sultan Ahmed�s life the number 14 was important. He came to throne in the age of 14, he reigned for 14 years and he was the 14th sultan of the Ottoman Empire.

He had died at the age of 28 because of typhus (22nd November 1617.

Sons: Osman II, Murad IV, Ibrahim, Bayezid, Suleyman, Kasim, Mehmed, Hasan, Selim, Hanzade, Ubeyde
Daughters: Gevherhan, Ayse, Fatma, Atike



When Sultan Ahmet came to the throne, the Ottoman Empire was in war with Austria in the West, with Iran in the East. The Ottoman Army commanded by Sinan Pasha marched through Revan but the Persians were plundering the villages on the way. Because of lack of food, the Ottoman Army spent the winter in Van (Eastern Anatolia).

The Ottoman army defeated the Persian commanded by Shah Abbas, their target was to take back Tabriz. But, Shah Abbas made a sudden attack and defeated the Ottomans and they withdrew firstly to Van and after to Diyarbakir. As the Ottoman-Austrian war was continuing, grand vizier Nasuh Pasha accepted Shah Abbas� request of peace. In 1612 the Ottoman-Iran war was ended with the Treaty of Nasuh Pasha.



Celal of Yozgat revolted with his thousands of supporters during the period of Selim I. This revolt had been repressed but conflicts in Anatolia had continued. In Ahmed�s period these revolts appeared again. Tavil Ahmed, Canbolatoglu, Kalenderoglu and Deli Hasan had revolted. Grand vizier Kuyucu Murad Pasha was a very strict soldier and he was rather cruel. He repressed these revolts so violently. He killed even the innocent people, but he ended the revolt.



When Sultan Ahmed I was ascended the empire was in war with Austria. The Ottoman forces were advancing through Budapest from Belgrade. The castles of Pest and Hatvan were captured bloodlessly (September 1604). The castle of Vac was captured in October 16, 1604. With the command of Sultan Ahmed I the Ottoman army walked through Budapest and besieged the castle of Estergon in August 29, 1605. In October 3, 1605 the castle was captured.

Both the Ottomans and the Austrians were in economic and politic attrition. And they decided to sign a peace treaty. The Zitvatoruk treaty was signed in November 11, 1606. The castles of Egri, Estergon, Kanije were given to the Ottomans, the castles of Rop and Koman were given to the Austrians. Austria would pay Ottomans 70.000.000 gold of compensation. The Ottoman Sultan would call the Austrian sovereign as the Emperor of Rome (Caesar) and two sovereigns would send gifts to each other in every three years. With this treaty the Ottoman supremacy on Austria began to be declined.



On 4th January 1610, the foundation of famous Sultanahmet Mosque was laid. Sultan himself worked as a labourer. The mosque was completed in June 1617. The other mosques built in his period are; Istanbul Mesih Pasha Mosque, Piyale Pasha Mosque, Omer Pasha Mosque.

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